Ag. Reference Guide

The following is a list of references that have been compiled to show the effects of polyacrylamide and superabsorbents used in agriculture for water retention and savings.

Polyacrylamide (PAM) References

Links to USDA References on PAM

http://iapreview.ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=18873

https://www.nal.usda.gov/waic/polyacrylamide-pam-and-soils

https://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/view/subjects/pam=5Fwatersoluble.html

 

 

Additional PAM Reference Materials

  1. Ajwa, Husein A. and Thomas J. Trout. 2006.Polyacrylamide and Water Quality Effects on Infiltration in Sandy Loam Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:643-650.
  2. Bahr, G.L. and T.D. Steiber. 1996.Reduction of nutrient and pesticide losses through the application of polyacrylamide in surface irrigated crops. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.41-48.
  3. Bjorneberg, D.L.(1998) Temperature, concentration, and pumping effects on PAM viscosity. Transactions of the ASAE. 41(6):1651-1655.
  4. Bjorneberg, D.L.and Lentz, R.D. (2005) Sediment pond effectiveness for removing phosphorus from PAM-treated irrigation furrows. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 21(4):589-593.
  5. Bjorneberg, D.L., F.L. Santos, N.S. Castanheira, O.C. Martins, J.L. Reis, J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 2003.Using polyacrylamide with sprinkler irrigation to improve infiltration.  Soil Water Conservation 58(5):283-289.
  6. Bjorneberg, D.L., J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 1997.Preliminary results using polyacrylamide with sprinkler irrigation. In: Proceedings of the winter commodity schools – 1996, 28:17-18. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
  7. Bjorneberg, D.L., J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 2000.Sprinkler Irrigation Runoff and Erosion Control with Polyacrylamide.Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Symposium: National Irrigation Symposium. ASAE publication 701P0004, pp.513-522. 14-16 November 2000. Phoenix, Arizona.
  8. Bologna, L.S., F.F. Andrawes, F.W. Barvenik, R.D. Lentz, and R.E. Sojka. 1999.Analysis of residual acrylamide in field crops. Journal of Chromatographic Science 37:240-244.
  9. Cahn, M. A Guide to Using Polyacrylamide (PAM) Polymers for Control of Irrigation Run-off on the Central Coast. Retrieved from http://cesantabarbara.ucanr.edu/files/75493.pdf
  10. Chamberlain, P., and R. Cole. 1996.Influence of structure and formulation on the efficacy of polyacrylamides as soil stabilizers. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.83-87.
  11. Dawson, L.J., T.L. Spofford, and K.L. Pfeiffer. 1996.The physical effects of polyacrylamide on natural resources. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.110-114.
  12. Deskin, R. 1996.Product stewardship considerations in the use of polyacrylamides in soil erosion applications. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.31-33.
  13. Entry, J.A.and Sojka, R.E. (2003) The efficacy of polyacrylamide to reduce nutrient movement from an irrigated field. Transactions of the ASAE. 46(1):75-83.
  14. Entry, J.A.and Strausbaugh, C.A. and Sojka, R.E. (2000) Wood chip-polyacrylamide medium for biocontrol bacteria decreases Verticillium dahliae infection on potato. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 10:677-686.
  15. Entry, J.A., Sojka, R.E., Watwood, M., and Ross, C. 2002.Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants.  Pollut. 120:191-200.
  16. Entry, James A.and Phillips, Ian and Stratton, Helen and Sojka, R.E. (2003) Polyacrylamide + aluminum sulfate and polyacrylamide + calcium oxide remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater. Environmental Pollution. 121:453-462.
  17. Entry, James A.and Sojka, R.E. (2000) The efficacy of polyacrylamide and related compounds to remove microorganisms and nutrients from animal wastewater. Journal of Environmental Quality. 29:1905-1914.
  18. Heatherly, L.G. (2016, June) Using Polyacrylamide (PAM) to Enhance Irrigation Efficiency. Retrieved from http://mssoy.org/uploads/files/pam-white-paper-june-2016_1.pdf
  19. Iida, C.L. and Shock, C.C. (2008, May) Make Polyacrylamide Work for You! Retrieved from http://www.mssoy.org/uploads/files/pam-oregon-2008.pdf
  20. Kay-Shoemake, J.L. and M.E. Watwood. 1996.Microbial ecology of polyacrylamide application in Agricultural soils. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.33-41.
  21. Kay-Shoemake, Jeanine L.and Watwood, Mary E. and Lentz, Rodrick D. and Sojka, Robert E. (1998) Polyacrylamide as an organic nitrogen source for soil microorganisms with potential effects on inorganic soil nitrogen in agricultural soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 30(8/9):1045-1052.
  22. Kay-Shoemake, Jeanine L.and Watwood, Mary E. and Sojka, Robert E. and Lentz, Rodrick D. (1998) Polyacrylamide as a substrate for microbial amidase in culture and soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 30(13):1647-1654.
  23. Kay-Shoemake, Jeanine L.and Watwood, Mary E. and Sojka, Robert E. and Lentz, Rodrick D. (2000) Soil amidase activity in polyacrylamide-treated soils and potential activity toward common amide-containing pesticides. Biology & Fertility of Soils. 31:183-186.
  24. King, B.A., B. Izadi, M.S. Ashraf, R.H. Brooks and W.H. Neibling. 1996.On-farm comparison of polyacrylamide and straw mulch on dry bean yield, irrigation performance and erosion. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.55-59.
  25. Lehrsch, G.A., D.C. Kincaid, and R.D. Lentz. 1996.PAM spray effects on sugarbeet emergence. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.115-118.
  26. Lehrsch, G.A., D.C. Kincaid, and R.D. Lentz. 1996.Polyacrylamide sprayed on soil surfaces can stabilize soil aggregates. 533-538. In: Erosion control technology – bringing it home. Proc. of Conf. 27, Seattle WA. 27 Feb. – 1 Mar. International Erosion Control Association, Steamboat Springs, CO.
  27. Lentz, R.D. 1995.Irrigation (Agriculture): Using polyacrylamide to control furrow irrigation-induced erosion. In: S.P. Parker (ed.) Yearbook of Science and Technology 1996, pp.162-165. McGraw Hill, Inc. NY.
  28. Lentz, R.D. 2003.Inhibiting water infiltration with polyacrylamide and surfactants: Applications for irrigated agriculture.  Soil Water Conservation 58:290-300.
  29. Lentz, R.D.(2015) Polyacrylamide and biopolymer effects on flocculation, aggregate stability, and water seepage in a silt loam.  241-242:289-294.
  30. Lentz, R.D.and Sojka, R.E. (2009) Long-term polyacrylamide formulation effects on soil erosion, water infiltration, and yields of furrow-irrigated crops. Agronomy Journal. 101(2):305-314. 9 March 2009.
  31. Lentz, R.D.and Sojka, R.E. and Foerster, J.A. (1996) Estimating polyacrylamide concentration in irrigation water. Journal of Environment Quality. 25:1015-1024.
  32. Lentz, R.D.and Sojka, R.E. and Robbins, C.W. (1998) Reducing phosphorus losses from surface-irrigated fields: emerging polyacrylamide technology. Journal of Environment Quality. 27:305-312.
  33. Lentz, R.D., and D.L. Bjorneberg. 2003.PAM and Straw Residue Effects on Irrigation Furrow Erosion and Infiltration.  Soil Water Conservation 58:312-319.
  34. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1994.Field results using polyacrylamide to manage furrow erosion and infiltration. Soil Science 158:274-282.
  35. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1996.Five-year research summary using PAM in furrow irrigation. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.20-27
  36. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1996.PAM Conformation effects on furrow erosion mitigation efficacy. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.71-77
  37. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1996.Polyacrylamide application to control furrow irrigation-induced erosion. 419-430. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Erosion Control Association meetings. Seattle Washington, 27 Feb.-1 Mar., 1996.
  38. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1997.Polyacrylamide (PAM) for erosion control. National Conservation Tillage Digest. Feb. 1997.
  39. Lentz, R.D. and Sojka, R.E. (1996, May) Fighting Irrigation-Induced Erosion with Polyacrylamide (PAM). Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18884
  40. Lentz, R.D., and R.E. Sojka. 1999.Applying polymers to irrigation water: Evaluating strategies for furrow erosion control. ASAE paper No. 99014. Handout; ASAE Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, July 18-21, 1999.
  41. Lentz, R.D., D.T. Westermann, D.C. Kincaid, and A.C. Koehn. 2001.Deep percolation and preferential flow under conventionally and PAM-treated irrigation furrows. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on preferential flow: Water Movement and Chemica Transport in the Environment. ASAE Publication 701P0006, pp.157-160. 3-5 January 2001. Honolulu, Hawaii.
  42. Lentz, R.D., I. Shainberg, R.E. Sojka and D.L. Carter. 1992.Preventing irrigation furrow erosion with small applications of polymers. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:1926-1932.
  43. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, and C.W. Robbins. 1996.Reducing soil and nutrient losses from furrow irrigated fields with polymer applications. In: Proceedings “Towards Sustainable Land Use: Furthering Cooperation Between People and Institutions”. 9th Conference of the International Soil Conservation Organization (ISCO), 26-30 August, 1996, Bonn, Germany, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, pp.1233-1238.
  44. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, and C.W. Robbins. 1998.Reducing phosphorus losses from surface-irrigated fields: emerging polyacrylamide technology.  Environ. Qual. 27:305-312.
  45. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, and D.C. Kincaid. 1998.Design and calibration of percolation samplers for measuring polyacrylamide-amended-furrow-irrigation effects on drainage water quality. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Drainage Symposium. Orlando, FL, March 8-11, 1998.
  46. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, and D.L. Carter. 1993.Influence of polymer charge type and density on polyacrylamide ameliorated irrigated furrow erosion. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual International Erosion Control Association Conference, 23-26 Feb., 1993, Indianapolis, IN, pp.159-168.
  47. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, and J.A. Foerster. 1996.Estimating polyacrylamide concentration in irrigation water.  Env. Qual. 25:1015-1024.
  48. Lentz, R.D., R.E. Sojka, C.W. Robbins, D.C. Kincaid, and D.T. Westermann. 2001.Polyacrylamide for surface irrigation to increase nutrient-use efficiency and protect water quality.  Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32(7&8):1203-1220.
  49. Lentz, R.D., Sojka, R.E., and Mackey, B.E. 2002.Fate and efficacy of polyacrylamide applied in furrow irrigation: Full-advance and continuous treatments.  Environ. Qual. 31:661-670.
  50. Lentz, R.D., T.D. Steiber, and R.E. Sojka. 1995.Applying polyacrylamide (PAM) to reduce erosion and increase infiltration under furrow irrigation. In: Robertson, L.D., Nolte, P., Vodraska, B., King, B., Tindall, T., Romanko, R. and Gallian, J. (eds.). Proc. Winter Commodity Schools–1995, pp.79-92. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension, Moscow, ID.
  51. Lentz, Rodrick D.and Sojka, Robert E. and Mackey, Bruce E. (2002) Fate and efficacy of polyacrylamide applied in furrow irrigation: Full-advance and continuous treatments. Journal of Environmental Quality. 31:661-670.
  52. Lentz, Rodrick D.and Sojka, Robert E. and Robbins, Charles W. and Kincaid, Dennis C. and Westermann, Dale T. (2001) Polyacrylamide for surface irrigation to increase nutrient-use efficiency and protect water quality. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 32(7&8):1203-1220.
  53. McElhiney and P. Osterli. 1996.An integrated approach for water quality: The PAM connection. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.27-30.
  54. Mitchell, J.K., C. Ray, G.F. McIsaac, and G. O’Brien. 1996.Land treatment effects on soil erosion. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.63-70.
  55. Natural Resources Conservation Service (2016, September) Conservation Practice Standard: Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) Application Code 450. Retrieved from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1046833.pdf
  56. Orts, W.J., R.E. Sojka, and G.M. Glenn. 2002.Polymer additives in irrigation water to reduce erosion and better manage water infiltration. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 13(4):37-41.
  57. Orts, W.J., R.E. Sojka, G.M. Glenn, and R.A. Gross. 1999.Preventing Soil Erosion with Polymer Additives. Polymer News. 24:406-413.
  58. Orts, W.J., Roa-Espinosa, A., Sojka, R.E., Glenn, G.M., Iman, S.H., Erlacher, K., Pedersen, J.S. 2007.Use of synthetic polymers and biopolymers for soil stabilization in agricultural, construction, and military applications. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 19(1):58-66.
  59. PAM: Just the Facts. Retrieved from http://waterquality.montana.edu/farm-ranch/irrigation/pam/facts.html
  60. Ross, C.W.and Sojka, R.E. and Foerster, J.A. (2003) Scanning electron micrographs of polyacrylamide-treated soil in irrigation furrows. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 58(5):327-331.
  61. Ross, C.W., R.E. Sojka, and R.D. Lentz. 1996.Polyacrylamide as a tool for controlling sediment runoff and improving infiltration under furrow irrigation. 229-230. In: Proceedings Australian and New Zealand National Soils Conference 1996, Volume 2 Oral Papers. University of Melbourne, Melbourne Australia, July 1-4, 1996.
  62. Sojka, R.E.and Bjorneberg, D.L. and Entry, J.A. and Lentz, R.D. and Orts, W.J. (2007) Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management. Advances in Agronomy. 92:75-162.
  63. Sojka, R.E., and J.A. Entry. 2000.Influence of polyacrylamide application to soil on movement of microorganisms in runoff water. Environmental Pollution 108:405-412.
  64. Sojka, R.E., and R.D. Lentz. 1993.Improving water quality of return flows in furrow-irrigated systems using polymer-amended inflows. In: Proceedings of the SWCS Conference on Agricultural Research to Protect Water Quality, 21-24 Feb., 1993. Minneapolis, Minn, pp.395-397.
  65. Sojka, R.E., and R.D. Lentz. 1994.Net infiltration and soil erosion effects of a few ppm polyacrylamide in furrow irrigation water. In: So, H.B., Smith, G.D., Raine, S.R., Schafer, B.M., and Loch R.J. (eds.) Sealing, Crusting and Hardsetting Soils: Proceedings 2nd Internat’l Symposium. 7-11 Feb., 1994, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia pp.349-354.
  66. Sojka, R.E., and R.D. Lentz. 1996.Polyacrylamide for furrow-irrigation erosion control. Irrigation Journal 64:8-11.
  67. Sojka, R.E., and R.D. Lentz. 1996.Polyacrylamide in furrow irrigation, an erosion control breakthrough. In: Proceedings of the first European Conference & Trade Exposition on Erosion Control. Sitges-Barcelona, Spain. May 27-31, 1996. Lecture Book, Vol I, pp.183-189.
  68. Sojka, R.E., and R.D. Lentz. 1997.Reducing furrow irrigation erosion with polyacrylamide (PAM).  Prod. Ag. 10(1):1-2, 47-52.
  69. Sojka, R.E., Lentz, R.D., Bjornberg, D.L., and Aase, J.K. The PAMphlet: A concise guide for safe and practical use of polyacrylamide (PAM) for irrigation-induced erosion control and infiltration enhancement. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18849
  70. Sojka, R.E., Bjorneberg, D.L., Entry, J.A., Lentz, R.D., and Orts, W.J. 2007.Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management. Advances in Agronomy 92:75-162.
  71. Sojka, R.E., D.W. Morishita, J.A. Foerster, and M.J. Wille. 2003.Weed seed transport and weed establishment as affected by polyacrylamide in furrow-irrigated corn.  Soil Water Conservation 58(5):319-326.
  72. Sojka, R.E., Entry, J.A., and Fuhrmann, J.J. 2006.The influence of high application rates of polyacrylamide on microbial metabolic potential in an agricultural soil. Applied Soil Ecology 32:243-252.
  73. Sojka, R.E., Entry, J.A., Orts, W.J., Morishita, D.W., Ross, C.W., Horne, D.J. 2005.Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigation agriculture. Water Science & Technology 51:107-115.
  74. Sojka, R.E., Lentz, R.D., Trout, T.J., Ross, C.W., Bjorneberg, D.L, and Aase, J.K. 1998.Polyacrylamide effects on infiltration in irrigated agriculture. Soil Water Conserv. 53:325-331.
  75. Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, and D.T. Westermann. 1998.Water and erosion management with multiple applications of polyacrylamide in furrow irrigation. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 62:1672-1680.
  76. Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, C.W. Ross, and T.J. Trout. 1996.Net and tension infiltration effects with PAM in furrow irrigation. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.). Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.97-102.
  77. Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, D.L. Bjorneberg, and J.K. Aase. 1998.The PAMphlet: A concise guide for safe and practical use of polyacrylamide (PAM) for irrigation-induced erosion control and infiltration enhancement. USDA-ARS Northwest Irrigation & Soils Research Lab., Station Note #02-98.
  78. Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, D.L. Bjorneberg, J.K. Aase, J.A. Entry, D.W. Morishita, C.W. Ross, and T.J. Trout. 1999.Polyacrylamide (PAM) – A 1 million acre progress report.85-92. In: Proceedings: Irrigation Association’s International Show & Technical Conference. Orlando, FL, 7-9 November, 1999.
  79. Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, I. Shainberg, T.J. Trout, C.W. Ross, C.W. Robbins, J.A. Entry, J.K. Aase, D.L. Bjorneberg, W.J. Orts, D.T. Westermann, D.W. Morishita, W.E. Watwood, T.L. Spofford, and F.W. Barvenik. 2000.Irrigating with polyacrylamide (PAM) – Nine years and a million acres of experience. In: Proceedings Irrigation 2000 Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, November, 2000. ASAE.
  80. Stieber, T.D., and H. Chapman-Supkis. 1996.Practical field application and PAM transport in surface irrigation. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.87-93.
  81. Trout, T.J., and R.D. Lentz. 1993.Polyacrylamide decreases furrow erosion. In: R.G. Allen and C.M.U. Neale (eds.) Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems: Integrated Perspectives. Proceedings of the 1993 National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Park City, UT, 21-23 July.
  82. Trout, T.J., R.E. Sojka, and R.D. Lentz. 1995.Polyacrylamide effect on furrow erosion and infiltration.  ASAE. 38(3):761-765.
  83. Valliant, J.C. 1996.Demonstration of polyacrylamide (PAM) to reduce erosion on onions in the Arkansas River Valley of Colorado. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.119-122.
  84. Yonts, C.D. (2008, July) Using Polyacrylamide to Reduce Soil Erosion. Retrieved from http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/html/g1866/build/g1866.htm

Superabsorbents Polymer (SAP) References

  1. Akhter, J., Mahmood, K., Malik, K.A., Mardan, A., Ahmad, M., Iqbal, M.M.(2004) Effects of hydrogel amendment on water storage of sandy loam and loam soils and seedling growth of barley, wheat, and chickpea. Plant Soil Environment, 50(10):463-469.
  2. Demitri, F. Scalera, M. Madaghiele, A. Sannino, and A. Maffezzoli, Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture. International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 435073, 6 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/435073.